Nefiracetam is a nootropic (cognition-enhancing) compound that belongs to the racetam family. It is designed to help reduce memory decline and improve concentration. It also works by promoting neurogenesis and enhancing learning processes.
The crystalline form of nefiracetam is unknown. In this study, three hitherto unidentified forms of nefiracetam are investigated from a thermodynamic and crystallographic point of view.
Whether you’re a student cramming for exams or an employee with an urgent project deadline, nootropics can be the brain-boosting supplements that give you the edge you need. These smart drugs, which include natural compounds like caffeine and ginkgo biloba, can improve your focus, memory, and overall brain health.
Nefiracetam powder europe belongs to a group of racetams that enhance cognitive function, including memory, focus, and problem-solving abilities. It works by enhancing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is responsible for learning and memory. It is a safe and effective nootropic that can be taken by healthy adults.
You can take nefiracetam alone or stack it with other nootropics. It can also be found in nootropic blends, such as NooCube, which includes 13 different ingredients that are scientifically proven to support cognitive function. This creates a synergistic effect that amplifies the benefits of each compound. These blends are easy to find online or in stores. They’re also a great choice for those who don’t want to buy each compound separately.
Nefiracetam is a fat-soluble racetam compound, structurally similar to piracetam and aniracetam. It is able to cross the blood-brain barrier, where it enhances activity of the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain – glutamate. In addition, it increases the density of choline, a substrate for synthesis of the second important excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Bulk material for dissolution testing was prepared by slurrying Nefiracetam FI and monohydrate in selected solvents at 25 degC. The vials were sealed and the solutions left for three days at 25 degC stirring 700 rpm in a Cooling Thermomixer HLC. The resulting solids were retrieved and analyzed.
Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was performed on the FI, FII and monohydrate forms of nefiracetam. XRPD patterns were calculated using software Crysalis Pro. The simulated patterns match the experimental ones very well. DSC and TGA curves were recorded on a Mettler Toledo TGA-STDA 851e.
Nefiracetam powder modulates the function of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in your brain. It keeps GABA levels steady, which prevents excess glutamate from causing neuron damage. This enables long-term potentiation and boosts learning. It also increases cholinergic and monoaminergic system activation.
Nefiracetam is fat-soluble and enters your brain quickly after consumption. It boosts the production of the crucial neurotransmitter acetylcholine, improving memory, focus, and clarity. It also protects neurons from oxidative stress and improves NMDA receptor activity.
Nefiracetam has a low solubility in organic solvents. To increase its solubility, it is often combined with coformers. For example, the 2:1 Nefiracetam-citric acid cocrystal NCA and 1:1:1 Nefiracetam-zinc chloride ionic cocrystal NZC are water-soluble. The 2:1 Nefiracetam-oxalic acid cocrystal NOA is soluble in ethanol and tetrahydrofuran. The crystal structures of these cocrystals were characterized by cooling experiments in ethyl acetate and tetrahydrofuran. Their diffraction patterns were compared with that of the parent compound Nefiracetam. Intermolecular contacts were identified using the spacefill representation.
Several formulation tools can be used to improve the dissolution rate of compounds with low water solubility. These can include polymorphic forms, salts, solvates, hydrates and cocrystals. Cocrystals are crystalline materials formed by binding different molecules in the same crystal lattice. Nefiracetam is a BCS class II compound with a low water solubility and permeability. To increase its bioavailability, formulation efforts are focused on cocrystal formation.
Slow cooling of a supersaturated acetonitrile solution yielded monoclinic C2/c cube-like single crystals of the FI anhydrate (NZC). This structure consists of two identical g-lactam and amide C=O moiety bound to zinc chloride in a tetragonal geometry around the Zn2+ ion.
Single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) data on the FI and FII anhydrates show a tetragonal structure with a spacefill representation that matches well with the experimentally observed patterns. DSC and TGA curves also support the tetragonal nature of these structures. XRPD and DSC data confirm that the FI anhydrate forms covalently complexed to zinc chloride and that a significant proportion of water is lost upon hydration of this hydrate form.